Variety of fillers for contouring

The search for eternal youth and beauty are inextricably linked to human history. In 14 century alchemists sought to discover the secret of the philosopher's stone and to gain eternal youth. Long time organized travel to all corners of the world in search of the sources of youth. Oscar Wilde came up with the ability to pause the ageing, creating the picture of Dorian Gray, that changed with time instead of its prototype.

Scientists and doctors also did not lag behind and also sought to conceal the traces of time on the face or to fill defects after illness. For example, with nose defects used household items (buttons), to restore facial symmetry. Minor blemishes corrected using various flies.
Anyway, in 1893 , there were the first reports of human diseased tissue reconstruction own tissues. At the beginning of 20 century the use of paraffin injections for cosmetic purposes, to compensate for defects of the skin. But, This often causes inflammation.

In 1960 , the onset of the global use of silicone to increase the volume of different tissues. And in 1981 It was officially allowed to use bovine collagen as an injectable filler. To date, and contouring procedure, is the most popular not only among women, but also among the male population. can hide the early signs of aging (nasolabial folds, nososleznaâ Groove, oval face), to correct facial imperfections (increase the volume of lips, emphasize their outline), fill any defects. In this article I will try to review all existing fillers, что позволит лучше ориентироваться в большом разнообразии препаратов.
Fillers (от английского «наполнитель») делятся на 3 categories:

  • fillers, функция которых заключается в восстановлении структур, утерянных в процессе возрастных изменений (collagen, hyaluronic acid, биологические филлеры)
  • fillers, стимулирующие рост собственных тканей (поли-Л молочная кислота, кальция гидроксиаппатит)
  • перманентные (постоянные) fillers (полиметилметакрилат, силикон, гидроксиметилметакрилат)

Восполняющие объем тканей: Collagen.

Коллаген известен как основной белок кожи. Свойства коллагена изменяются с течением времени, a negative impact also has sun, all, chronic diseases. So, collagen injections are a simple and effective means of skin rejuvenation.

As a basis of such drugs used bovine or human collagen, representing lidocaine in saline solution. The filaments form a network of collagen, which creates the structure of the skin. Injected Collagen is recognized by our immune system and destroyed collagenase (enzyme), All this leads to the development of inflammation. Edema, that occurs during inflammation, It leads to increased tissue volume. Such a response may take up to 18 months. As a rule, increase persists 6 months after the injection.

Существуют два типа коллагеначеловеческий и бычий. Бычий коллаген в качестве филлера используется с 1970 year. Самый известный филлер на основе бычьего коллагена -Зидерм, используется с 1981 as a wrinkle filler. Used in the cosmetic market 2 the drug: Ziderm 1 (It contains 3,5% collagen) and Zyderm 2 (6,5% collagen).
Ziplast – Another filler, yarns which are stitched with additional bonds (necessary in order, enzymes that slowly would absorbable drug and filler remained longer in the skin).

Since bovine collagen is a foreign material to the human body (Despite the high degree of purification), high risk of allergic reactions. Therefore, before injection of the drug should do an allergy test. An alternative fillers such preparations are based on the human collagen. The most famous products are Kosmoderm and Kosmoplast, which comprise a purified collagen from fibroblasts (skin cells). These fillers are used to 2003 year, they are lighter, but less stable in comparison with preparations based on bovine collagen.

Dermalogen another preparation based on human collagen, created on the basis of collagen from cadaveric tissue. there are drugs, Collagen which is prepared from a patient's own cells. İzoalagen – product based on natural collagen, which is obtained from a skin biopsy of cells taken.

Provision has also a third type of collagen-based preparations – porcine collagen preparations (Fibrel). These drugs are used in patients with allergic reactions to bovine and human collagen. Fibrel porcine collagen comprises 1 type and it is dissolved in the patient's own plasma. With such a preparation is difficult to correct the wrinkles, it can be noticeable in patients with thin skin. Each of the drugs has its own indications for, and administration technique depth.

Hyaluronic acid

Hyaluronic acid (Intensified Production Of Acid) One of the most popular frameworks for fillers. It is a natural polysaccharide, which is found in a large number of body tissues (cartilage, intercellular substance). Injectable hyaluronic acid is a highly purified product, Only in rare cases cause allergic reactions. Skin aging is largely associated with reduced levels of hyaluronic acid, which is manifested decreased tone and hydration. One of the properties of hyaluronic acid is the ability to attract and retain water, that allows users to restore dehydrated skin. In its natural form of hyaluronic acid is an intercellular substance, supporting structural skin proteins and elastin -kollagen. So, injectable hyaluronic acid leads to a reduction of skin wrinkles and creases, as well as to the correction of facial contours. One of the known preparations based on hyaluronic acid are drugs of Restylane. The acid thus obtained as a result of ability to live bacteria, by twisting and crosslinking its molecules. The drug consists of minute gel particles.

Gialoform Gialoform plus and represent another class of drugs based on hyaluronic acid. The preparation thus obtained from rooster combs, it has a low content of hyaluronic acid and a shorter effect. Also, such preparations contain a small amount of foreign proteins, that may cause allergic reactions. Fillers based on hyaluronic acid have an effect throughout the 6-8 months. Technically, all drugs are administered in the middle layers of the skin. More superficial or deep introduction can give a color change or the uneven distribution of gel. As fillers hyaluronic acid do not contain lidocaine, injections can be painful (currently being investigated drugs, containing ultrakain). Also used drugs group Surdzhiderm, Juvederm, Teoseal, Belotero.

biological fillers

Saymetra – bezkletochny dermal matrix from donated human Tacna, which comprises collagen, elastin, and proteoglycans. Such a formulation provides an environment for the development of their own cell growth. The effect is visible throughout Saymetry 12 months. Injections own tissues are the most suitable for the correction of skin defects. Own human adipose tissue is taken in the abdomen, hips, buttocks or other areas and are introduced into the desired zone. In some cases, the effect lasts 7 years, but the cosmetic effect and the rate of absorption of the drug in this unpredictable. Nonetheless, fillers based on their own fatty tissue have been used successfully in the areas of mobile persons, such as lips.

The types of fillers: stimulants.

Poly-L lactic acid.

It is a synthetic polymer from the family of alfa-hydroxy acids, biosovmestimый and biodegradiruemый (destroyed their own skin cells). The drug has a mechanical effect temporary increase, and further filler stimulates the body's own response, causing the formation of collagen, which leads to the gradual filling of skin defects, several months later. Since the effect of the procedure storage, recommend to spend a few injections over several months. Poly-l lactic acid is known under the commercial name Sculptra (in USA) and New Fill (in Europe). Technically, such fillers are suitable for filling large volumes, than for correction of wrinkles. The drug is administered subcutaneously or deep into the dermis. Since the cumulative effect of the procedure, It is not recommended to introduce a large amount of the drug required postinjection and massage.

calcium hydroxyapatite.

calcium hydroxyapatite – mineral component of bones. Fillers wherein the microspheres contain the drug in glycerol gel and saline. Most of the administered drug is destroyed for 6-8 weeks, During this period there is the encapsulation of hydroxyapatite, which prevents it from moving. These microparticles are the foundation for building your own collagen. The effect can last 2-5 years. Such fillers denser than the surrounding tissue, therefore, may be felt when touching over 2-3 months (own collagen then evens out skin texture).
Commercial preparations based on hydroxyapatite is Radiesse.

The types of fillers: перманентные

PMMA microspheres (полиметилметакрилат).

Commercial name based on PMMA products – Arte-Fill (PMMA combination with bovine collagen) (in Europe – Artekoll). Collagen, which is 80 % the drug, provides an increase in volume during the 2-4 months. During this time PMMA is its own response in the tissues and encapsulated (It is enclosed in a capsule) in collagen thread, that hinder the movement of the drug. In this case, encapsulated 50-75% the drug, providing a cosmetic effect on 10 or more years. Undoubtedly, the result depends on their own abilities and restoring skin to age. Since the product contains bovine collagen, allergic reactions. Injections with the introduction of such fillers are performed in small volumes, recommend patients restrict the movement of facial muscles during 3 days (to the drug is not shifted to the deeper layers of the skin).


silicone – synthetic polymer for intradermal, which is encapsulated by the formation of fibrous tissue. Size formation of connective (fibroznoй) tissue depends on the dose administered drug. Two drugs based on silicone used today – Silicone and AdatoSil. These drugs are widely used in ophthalmology.

hydroxyethyl methacrylate.

Gidroksimetilmetakrilat presents another permanent filler. Commercial name – Dermalaйf and Dermadip (combination of acrylic acid and hyaluronic gel). With the introduction of such a preparation is the formation of collagen, but there is an inflammatory reaction in the surrounding tissues. Technically, these drugs are injected deep into the skin, or subcutaneously, since more superficial introduction of the risk of inflammation and the formation of granulomas.

At the conclusion of the review should be noted, the ideal filler – is a drug, which is completely compatible with the skin, It does not cause strong allergic and inflammatory reactions, which can provide fast and lasting effect and stimulates the formation of collagen over long periods of time.

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