Peculiarities of the process of skin aging

Features of the anatomical structure of subcutaneous neck muscles to determine its impact on the aging process entity. Recent foreign researches in the field of Anatomy of the subcutaneous muscles allow you to look at different methods of correction of age-related changes in the area of platysma, as well as the processes of skin aging and some structures, enable you to retain your facial muscles in podtânutom condition.

Summary of an article by Professor Alain Fogli (France) about his own view on methods of surgical correction of age-related changes of neck muscles.

Neck the platysma muscle and its role in the aging process entity

Platysma muscle neck of a young man is a muscle blade and forms almost a right angle with the horizontal part of the, It's posted at the level of rizoriusa and nearly fills the space below the clavicle (rice. 1).

Rice. 1 Location of myšcyplatizmy young man

Top muscle fiber first arranged horizontally, They then bend before močkoj ear, intersect on the lower jaw and are near-vertical, covering the perednelateral′nuû of your neck. The fibers of the anterior part of the neck muscles are separated on both sides of the midline (rice. 2).

Rice. 2 (and). Office myšcplatizmy the young person, ((b)) Association myšcplatizmy from old man

According to held in 1980-IES Research subcutaneous neck muscles are subjected to the same changes in aging persons. These studies were conducted in the anatomical laboratories Professor Jose Santini in Nice (France), Philippe Kejksa in Bordeaux (France) and Daniel Èglofa in Lausanne (Switzerland).

The upper fibers of the muscle platysma are on average 2-3 see below a horizontal line, off the rizoriusa, and young people cross the front of the lower jaw, While the fibers of the posterior margin of the muscles are not, or just a bit exposed, changes in aging (Fig. 3 (a) and (b)).

Rice. 3. (and) The position of the top and bottom edges of the platysma muscle in older vozdaste (right-wing designations), ((b)) The position of the top and bottom edges of the platysma muscles in old age (the left-handed notation). Note, that, on the one hand, shifting fibers platysma down and forward, and on the other hand, the rear edge is not changed during stareniâlica. (with) Platysma muscle movement on vertical vector (observed in young people.

The front edge of the platysma muscle move forward to the edge of the subcutaneous muscles of neck, and their connection to the middle line has already been studied Konnelom and Gaolom. It must be remembered, that young people are ahead, and their condition depends on the severity of the ligament platysma, which may be more or less visible, Depending on the formation of the angle between the neck and Chin (rice. 2(b)).

Form bundles of platysma is not the result of stretching of the muscle and its relaxation, but rather her slip into the outer aponeurotic plane, exacerbated by a reduction. This process ideally coincides with the General logic of aging muscle.

The role of skin condition in aging persons

The ligament between the skin and muscle platysma very dense, Therefore, there is no any noticeable slide between these fabrics. And really, platysma muscle has the same comparatively Embryological origin, that and leather. They are subjected to the process of ageing at the same time, which is supported by their close interaction.

Fixing structure, to help correct facial aging process

In the same way, like holding the bundles, some structures are not subject to change during the aging process entity. These structures include skulovuû periosteum, preauricular Aponeurosis and fascia Lloret, that was the subject of anatomical study Labbé, etc. This fascia has been described as a landmark in the lore of Parotid surgery upon reaching the facial nerve trunk. And really, subcutaneous ear chords, staying ahead of the earlobe, as documented in Furnas, are white dense fibrous structure and associated with Parotid fascia (Fig. 4a).

Rice. 4. (and) Auricular ligament platysma ((A)) and prelobarnaâ fibrous tissue (In). ((b)) From superficial to deep tissue: upper arrow points to the mounting plane, which is usually at the 0,7-1 see below the surface of the skin; lower arrow points to the trunk of the facial Sockeye Salmon, which is located at a depth 2,5 see below the surface of the skin

These various structures are connected, forming fibrous, homogeneous, dense and firm tissue, which serves as a mount for fiber platysma. They are located in sections from 0,7 to 1 see below the surface of the skin, While the facial nerve trunk is on 2,5 see below the surface of the skin (Fig. 4b). So, There is no danger in busy consolidating the platysma this level of fibrous structures.

Surgical findings in relation to the aging process entity

Surgical findings of these anatomical findings are extremely important, because they do not correspond to the evolution of surgical principles, who studied and practiced for decades, but they follow the logic of, that is completely the opposite in relation to earlier knowledge for the following reasons.

Firstly, separation of skin and muscle is not only unhelpful and not logical, but also reduces the effectiveness of surgical intervention. The connection between the skin and the skin muscle slightly changes during aging. It is a very large contiguous surface of anchorages and merging many of microstructures, that keep the skin. In addition to skin a root canal their separation reduces the effectiveness of invasive techniques. Fabrics are combined together on a plane surface aponeurotic. The first surgical finding is not in their separation, but to create muscle support, that would raise them together and thereby restore the anatomical structure as, in which it is held by young people (Fig. 3 c). Office especially illogical because, that it damages the rear edge of the platysma, which is not subject to changes in aging. Moreover, the rear edge of the Office leads to stretch and fixation muscles at the rear, in position, unnatural as for old and young people. There is no reliable structure for the rear fastening. Fibrous tissue under pressure are always moved forward and provide the appearance of sagging. This creates such anatomic structure, that explains the low efficiency and unnatural aspect of some of the results.

Secondly, the seam between the platysma muscles on the midline, which is generated when the submental′nom approach, also turns out to be illogical within this concept, because it separates the skin muscles in anatomical position, typical for patients aged. This structure should not be generated, If the platysma muscles were significantly raised up and tightly secured to the fastening structures, that were mentioned previously.

Its own method of correction of age-related changes in the area of platysma and influence on the aging process of the skin and some structures, enable you to retain your facial muscles in podtânutom State Alan Fogli will present at the World Congress of ISAPS, which will take place in Kyiv 19-20 May!

Alain Fogli:

– Professor of International Association of aesthetic plastic surgeons of ISAPS;

– Honorary President of the national organization of plastic, Reconstructive and aesthetic surgery;

– Member of the French Association of plastic, Reconstructive and aesthetic surgeons;

– Member of the Argentine Association of (g. Buenos Aires, Argentina) on plastic, Reconstructive and aesthetic surgery;

– founder of the Clinique de chirurgie esthetique du docteur Alain Fogli lyrics, g. Marcel (France).

Source –


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