male infertility: the main thing - do not give up!

How does the conception of a child, we all know of the school biology course. But in textbooks does not say, how difficult and dangerous the path of the sperm to the egg. Male germ cell size 50 micrometers to overcome the distance of twenty thousand times more, than she, and then penetrate the egg. In the case of, If sperm are not able to accomplish such a feat, doctors put a man diagnosed with "infertility".

The diagnosis of "male sterility": so if he is terrible?

According to WHO, to 17% couples around the world can not have children. In Russia, this figure ranges from 7 to 18% in different regions. Up To 10% families can not conceive naturally. In this case, 4 cases of 10 the cause of infertility lies in a man's body.

Male infertility - a violation of the male reproductive function, which is expressed in a quantitative or qualitative change of spermatozoa. They are either too small, either they are too weak, to reach the egg and fertilize it.

But not far perpetuity situation hopeless. When properly chosen therapy every four men after treatment can conceive. By the way, statistics show, that the success of the treatment of male infertility 13% exceeds the effectiveness of the treatment of female. The main thing in this matter - in time to see the profile expert - doctor-andrologist.

Causes of male infertility

Infertility factors have a strong half of mankind are most often:

  • endocrine disorders (19% cases). Disruptions in the hormonal background - is one of the most frequent causes of death of sperm and testicular failure to produce new.
  • Varicocele (15% cases). Vasodilation in the testes and spermatic cord increases the comfort for the development of sperm temperature 34 ° C. This can cause damage and loss of seed.
  • Congenital anomalies (12% cases). genetic pathology, twisting and undescended testes lead to a breach of fertility. Rectify the situation can be in the first weeks after the birth of a boy.
  • Infectious diseases (10% cases). Заболевания, передающиеся половым путем (Chlamydia, gonorrhea, trichomoniasis e date.), certainly, in the first place on the level of danger. But other infections, such as brucellosis, mumps (piggy), can lead to damage producing sperm cells.
  • inflammation of the prostate and ureters become a cause of infertility 9% of the total number of cases.
  • The causes of sexual nature: premature ejaculation, lack of erection or her absence. To solve these problems better address not to andrologu, and sexologist.
  • Tumors in the testicles (3% cases), as benign, and malignant, violate potency.

Less common causes of diseases can be treated: reduction in the overall immunity, antibiotics and other medicines, psychogenic factors. tight underwear, I love a hot bath, active sports can also lead to loss of viability of sperm.

Did you know?
During ejaculation, the body gets dozens of women, or even hundreds of millions of sperm, of which "survive" only a few hundred remain in a few hours. About a dozen will be able to overcome the "gates" of the cervix, units reached the egg, and only one single, first "break" defense, fertilize the egg.

Types of male infertility

Varieties inability to conceive defined anatomic and functional features.

  • secretory infertility. Develops in disorders of sperm production and maturation, It can be temporary or permanent. Temporary disruption maturation associated with exposure hazards: elevated body temperature and the ambient, toxic substances. Eliminating the effect of harmful factors sperm maturation process restores. So, operation with varicocele shows efficacy in 90-95%.
    Secretory infertility is permanent with genetic or congenital abnormalities of the tubules of the epididymis. The defeat of the secretory cells of testicular tubular system observed in mumps, autoimmune diseases. Atrophy of the secretory cells of the tubules of the epididymis, as well as the defeat of the tubules of the testes - the phenomenon of irreversible.
  • excretory infertility due to the difficulty of the passage of sperm vas deferens. Obstacle sperm movement can be caused by spikes in the epididymal tubule. Sperm cells simply do not fall into the seminal fluid. Adhesions may form due to inflammation, ЗППП, injuries, tumors in the tissues of the testicles.
  • autoimmune infertility violation occurs when a natural barrier between the blood vessels and the vas deferens (for example, after injury). As a result, the immune response generated in the blood - in this case of a foreign body invasion takes spermatozoa. As a result of antisperm antibodies specific reduced motility, and then the last, and did perish.
  • combined infertility observed in violation of sperm maturation and the presence of obstacles to ejaculation (erectile dysfunction, for example).
  • relative infertility determined in the absence of obvious reasons: semen is normal, barriers to sexual life there are no, a conception does not occur. Happens when violations sexual health.

Diagnosis of male infertility

The main criterion for identification of disease is to assess sperm viability.

The first and fundamental research is spermogramma. Before carrying out the analysis of 4-6 days is recommended sexual rest and abstinence from alcohol. The collected sperm clinic (for accuracy need fresh semen) on the same day to investigate the viscosity, during liquefaction, acidity, sperm count and motility.

If three consecutive "bad" results of semen doctor establishes a diagnosis. Further measures are aimed at identifying the level of destruction of the male reproductive system. For this purpose, using instrumental and laboratory research methods.

Methods of instrumental diagnostics

  • As a screening method performs ultrasound of the scrotum. On examination, determine the state of the appendages and spermatic cord, structure and form testicular, the presence of adhesions and additional education: cysts, gidatid - rudiments Müllerian, sites of inflammation or tumor growth.
  • Truz (prostate ultrasound) held for suspected hypertrophy, or inflammation of the prostate gland. Both of these conditions result in the narrowing duct ejaculation.
  • Genitografiâ held to clarify the narrowing of the seminal ducts. After the introduction of contrast agent is performed radiographic study.
  • biopsy yaichek performed in suspected cancer. Using puncture testicular sperm also receive portion for IVF.

Laboratory diagnosis

According to statistics 80% cases of male sterility is accompanied by the presence of urogenital infections. Methods of diagnosis of male infertility against diseases, sexually transmitted, are crucial. Explores the swab from the urethra, the secret of the prostate, blood. The urethra and prostate secretion can be detected bacteria, Chlamydia, Trichomonas, pale treponema (syphilis), Mycoplasma. Blood detect antibodies - immune cells, which are aimed at destroying foreign microorganisms. According to the results of the ELISA and PCR determine the duration of the course of the disease.

Also conduct research on hormone levels: prolactin, estradiol, lyuteotropnogo and follicle stimulating hormone. All of them are related to the secretion and maturation of sperm.

Additional tests include a semen sample and vaginal secretions in order to clarify the immune response women, in which the spermicidal.

Treatment of male infertility

After the diagnosis and determine the causes of pathology doctor prescribes therapy. Treatment takes place in several stages.

So, after the appointment of a physician are treated with the required procedures or taking drugs (for example, antibiotics during infection). After 3-4 months of treatment the couple is sexually active in the recommended mode: 2 times per week. If pregnancy does not occur, performed pharmacological stimulation of sperm synthesis. Women during ovulation produces artificial insemination for 2-3 cycles. If the activities carried out do not end the positive effect, assisted reproductive technologies used: IVF-ICSI or IVF Peaks, including with donor sperm.

Effective treatment of male infertility, depending on its cause, It involves the following steps:

Correction lifestyle

Primarily recommend eliminate the effect of harmful factors: high and low temperatures, radiation. It is necessary to give up smoking, use of narcotics, alcohol. Displaying a healthy diet and an active lifestyle.

Sex life should be regular, least 3 weekly.

medication

In identifying infection administered antibacterial agents to inhibit pathogen, and then - immunomodulatory drugs and multivitamins to restore immunity.

In inflammatory processes shown NSAID (non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs), Physiotherapy, immunostimulants.

To improve the secretion of sperm recommend taking a multivitamin complexes for 2-3 weeks for 2-3 months. To strengthen the fresh sperm forms prescribed vitamins A and E, which have an antioxidant effect.

Effective in spermatogenesis polymetallic complexes, containing zinc and selenium. Because natural products have the highest content of zinc pumpkin seeds.

To improve the blood supply to the testicles and prostate prescribe drugs, improving microcirculation: "Trental", "Kurantil", 'Ointment contains'.

Obschestimuliruyuschim effect has honey: Buckwheat or lime, and tincture of Eleutherococcus, aralii, pantokrina.

Hormonal treatments are effective in the form of autoimmune male infertility. To strengthen the physiological barrier between the vas deferens and the blood vessels are used glucocorticoids: or prednisolone gidrokortizon. Sex hormones used with great caution, because they can lead to erectile dysfunction.

Surgical intervention

Operative intervention is carried out at varicocele or obturation (violation tubule patency).

insemination

The procedure is carried out at a form of immunological infertility. Sperm donor or partner enter special pipette into the uterus. As a result, no contact with the sperm cervical mucus.

IVF with ICSI

In Vitro Fertilization by ICSI involves technology, that a pre-selected single sperm is supplied via a micromanipulator notch egg shell. Inside it penetrates yourself. The selection of sperm takes place under the microscope - emit the most mobile and morphologically "right". Fertilization takes place in vitro, ie in vitro.

IVF with pix

It differs from the previous one, that sperm choose not visually, and using the hyaluronic acid. This method allows you to inject the most mature, healthy sperm. Sperm superfine needle is introduced into the cytoplasm of the ovum.

sperm donation as a last resort

In the absence of erectile sperm function is directly obtained from egg. If none of the sperm incapable of fertilization, It used a sperm donor.

 

In the absence of pregnancy in couples after a year of constant attempts should not waste time, waiting for the weather by the sea. The earlier examination and treatment, the more likely to become parents, because - do not delay! Modern medicine is able to give joy to be parents even in the most, It would seem, hopeless cases.

Source: HTTPS://www.kp.ru/

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