As the digestive system affects our mood

Digestive system of any living organism literally teeming with a huge number of bacteria. Just imagine: at this very moment you have inside are hundreds of trillions of microorganisms, inhabit the digestive tract. Cells of microorganisms is much more, than the cells of the body (which approximately ten trillion). If you are not sufficiently impressive, then think about how, that collectively all these Microbe genes in 150 times more, than actual human.

Scientists are still trying to accurately determine, What bacteria make up the Human Microbiome. According to preliminary data, It contains about 1,000 species of bacteria studied and already has seven thousand quite unexplored. Really someone who, and our moves through the path is rarely lonely.

Human Microbiome is a collection of microorganisms, that inhabit our bodies both inside, and outside. The most studied part of the microflora of the intestine is considered mikrobioma, because the greatest concentration of bacteria concentrated exactly there.

Micro-organisms in the digestive tract are essential to human mental health. Gastrointestinal condition affects our appetite and mood much stronger, than we used to think.

Ted Dinan (Ted Dinan), Professor of Psychiatry and Director of the Center for nutritional research farmabiotiki University College in Ireland, become an expert in the study of bacteria almost accidentally. It happened in early 2000-ies, When he had just been hired. Ted himself at that time described himself as a man of, that their reckless ideas constantly distracted very busy and this hapless microbiologists, which at the moment just researched this type of bacteria, as probiotics.

Probiotics are bacteria, which are good for our health. They improve the intestinal microflora and close in structure to its own bacteria in the human body. About such kinds of probiotics, both lactobacteria and Bifidobacteria, you've been heard in commercials of yogurt.

As psychiatrist, Dinan decided to, that will be very curious to see what, What will happen, If feed probiotics in laboratory rats and observe their behavior. For this he spent next experiment: immediately after the birth of rat cubs were separated from the mother, that provoked them, development of depression and a significant decline in immunity.

Then the scientists some time gave them a special probiotic Bifidobacterium infantis titled, After the adoption of which rats normalized immunity, but the signs of depression and anxiety became much less. After the incident, Dinant and his colleagues proposed Enter the new term "psihobiotik" to refer to a special class of microorganisms, which positively affect the behavior and brain activity.

Psihobiotiki is a bacteria, which when ingested in sufficient quantity can benefit the health of patients, the mentally ill.

Ted Dinan, Professor of Psychiatry

History mikrobioma

The hypothesis, What processes, taking place in our digestive tract, influence on mental health, can hardly new. Medicine for many years tends to blame our gastro-intestinal tract in all imaginable and unimaginable woes.

It all started with Facebook, that in the beginning of 1800-ies the military surgeon and physiologist William Beaumont (William Beaumont) He became a pioneer in the field of Gastroenterology, Having examined the gastric secretion. The case was unusual: patient shot in the abdomen injured Beaumont during hunting. Because of this in his abdominal cavity formed a pretty big hole, that any would not be delayed. This gave the possibility of Bomonu carefully examine the digestive system. He lowered into the hole bits of food and watched, What happens to them. Exactly and fixed, that is important not only for digestion reduce stomach wall, but the gastric juice, that dissolves food.

By the early 1900 's doctors and scientists came to conclusion, that should be considered as a kind of sanctuary for the digestive system of huge amount of mental illness. Even then, they're at full serious thought, that poor microflora of the intestine may well cause increased fatigue, melancholy and many neuroses.

Interesting and quite recent experience, delivered on mice Jane foster (Jane Foster), nejrobiologom Mcmaster University of Canada. In the course of experiment Jane sought to prove, that there is a direct link between the brain and the germline intestines axis — — the brain».

The experiment used two kinds of mices: normal and sterile, which completely lacked microflora. Their observation was placed in a special box, one of which was darkened, and the other was on the light. Normal mouse longer studied a darkened area, and sterile more time spent on the bright side of the box. Hence the assumption, that anxiety without microflora manifested far less and mouse simply don't feel the danger.

In another study it was set, that the Microbiome affects genes, related to mielinom, material, protective layer that covers nerve fibers. It is produced in the prefrontal cortex of the brain, responsible for the behavior and conservation of concentration. If in this part of the brain is damaged, the person becomes more susceptible to numerous mental disorders, including schizophrenia and severe forms of depression. Research focuses on the, to find out, How microorganisms affect the development of digestive system diseases.

The gastrointestinal tract has its own nervous system, which is called enteral. With the help of bacteria in our intestines can send the brain specific chemical signals. It is important, in order for this system to work properly, Since some species of bacteria contain critical neurotransmitters, such as:

  • acetylcholine (participates in the transfer of impulses in the different departments of the brain);
  • gamma aminobutirat (Removes mental institution);
  • tryptophan (improves mood).

In one study, Ted Dinan and his colleagues decided to feed the mice probiotikam, similar to those, that is usually added to yogurts. Mouse, who got this probiotic, behaved less anxious and more actively investigated the proposed portion of the maze, timid mouse had become more communicable. Moreover, These mice experienced higher levels of gamma-aminobutyric acid, which is responsible for eliminating mental arousal and anxiety reduction.

In another experiment, scientists have transplanted microbes from the intestines of mice, suffering from depression, in the bowels of conventional mice. It turned out, that mouse, previously behavior was normal, adopted the restless habits of those relatives, whose bacteria they transplanted. This experiment allowed Dinanu to assume, that the gut and brain are connected directly via the vagus nerve.

The vagus nerve is one of the nerves, that goes from hole âremnogo skull and neck down into the chest and abdominal cavity. With his help the brain receives information that, What happens in the human body.

Prospects of study mikrobioma

So far, all the studies were conducted exclusively in mice, and the human body does not affect. Effect of probiotics on our wellbeing yet little studied, but this gives stimulus to move forward.

The only study, conducted on humans, It was such a: 40 absolutely healthy participants divided into two groups. For four weeks, half of them has eight species of beneficial bacteria, that were designed to facilitate any manifestations of depression and anxiety. The second group was given placebo. After the end of the experiment, all the participants tested on a special scale for depression. The participants of the experiment, who took the good bacteria, were significantly less prone to expressions of sadness and depression. However it is not necessary to exaggerate the significance of the results of this study.

Absence of evidence is not a reason to believe, What psihobiotiki do not work on humans. The invisible axis "gut-brain" is a very complex system, that has to be carefully examined. For example, scientists plan to learn, What bacteria in the body are most important for its proper functioning, as well as using what biological mechanisms of psihobiotiki influence on our mood.

Jonathan By Eisen (Jonathan Eisen), Professor, University of California, considers, that figuring out, What microorganisms are important for the intestinal microflora, will be a decisive step in the field of Gastroenterology development. If the change of microflora can affect behavior, you just need to understand, how it works.

Further study will be useful for the development of mikrobioma as medicine, and dietetics. There is no reason to doubt, that dietary change will entail changes in the digestive system. That is why it is important to examine, is it possible to somehow affect the bacterial contents of alimentary tract, to achieve best results from dieting. With regard to medicine, then in people with certain diseases have specific microbes, that this illness provoked. If you know, How to fix them, the recovery can occur much faster.

There is no normal or healthy mikrobioma, to whom should strive. Microbiome is complicated, He is constantly changing and is heavily dependent on the human condition and order, what he eats.

Ed Yong (Ed Yong), British scientist, writer and journalist

In the study of the digestive tract too many false hypotheses and unproven facts. Link mikrobioma and depression has not proven, However, this does not prevent people do about this assumption of varying degrees of absurdity. Jonathan by Eisen in his blog even offers to issue a particularly delusional speculation special award.

With regard to serious research, the study is quite acute mikrobioma. For example, The National Institute of mental health in the past two years identified 3,7 million dollars to study the role of mikrobioma in human mental health, The Office of Naval Research United States also funded study mikrobioma, a European project called MyNewGut started to explore the relationship between the brain and the digestive tract. It is already clear, that eventually scientists dig up something interesting, so far, however, need to be patient.

The history of biomedical research is full of examples of, as of the, It would seem, nothing significant assumptions were grandiose conjecture and opening. The most striking example can be seen as the human genome project. A quarter of a century ago, When work on the project just started, scientists hoped to determine the sequence of nucleotides, components of human DNA, that would have led to the discovery of cures for many genetic diseases.

bacteria, the human genome

Such terrific results of work on the project had not led, but scientists were able to decipher human èpigenom. It combines all the factors, that define, What kind of genes, components of the genome, function, and which are not. This was a great discovery. Now to study mikrobioma do almost the same rates. However, do not forget that still, that discovery in this area is not so simple, both seem to be at first glance, and answer the main question of life, The universe and everything else they don't exactly give.

Sources –
http://lifehacker.ru/
How Your Gut Affects Your Mood
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